Topic 2 Impact on type II diabetes

Epidemiological studies (“Trans Fatty Acids, Insulin Sensitivity and Type 2 Diabetes,” 2016) have shown that mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids can promote the development of type 2 diabetes. The influence of monounsaturated trans fatty acids on insulin sensitivity has not been fully investigated. Increased consumption of industrially derived trans fatty acids has been shown to induce insulin sensitivity, especially in obese women with low levels of physical activity.

Since trans fats cause cell membranes to become rigid and inflexible, they may be a cause of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas functions, but not as efficiently as it should. The hormone insulin transports sugar into the cells and needs the cell walls to be permeable. If the cell walls are altered, it is harder for insulin to carry the sugar into the cells. So the body continues to produce insulin, but the impermeable and hardened walls prevent it from doing its job, so glucose is inefficiently converted into energy and excess glucose accumulates in the blood.

For people with type 2 diabetes who are overweight, weight loss is very effective in reducing insulin levels. Type 2 diabetes can sometimes be controlled by lifestyle changes, which include healthy eating/diet, daily physical activity and blood glucose monitoring.

Around 60 million people in the European region have diabetes mellitus (DM), and the disease is spreading among people of all ages. Currently, 10-15% of the population in some European countries has the disease. The increasing prevalence of diabetes is due to the growing number of overweight, obese, unhealthy eating, physical inactivity and socio-economic disadvantage. WHO predicts that diabetes will become the 7th most common cause of death by 2030 (Institute of Hygiene, 2016).